Penny Chisholm

Lee and Geraldine Martin Professor of Environmental Studies
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department of Biology

MIT 48-419
15 Vassar Street
Cambridge, MA 02139

Phone: (617) 253-1771
Fax: (617) 324-0336
Email: chisholm at mit dot edu

View Curriculum Vitae

Employment and Positions:

2006-2008 Director, MIT Earth System Initiative (
Co-Director, Terrascope (
1993-present Joint Appointment, Department of Biology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1976-present Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Division of Water Resources & Environmental Engineering
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1988-1995 MIT Director, MIT/Woods Hole Joint Program in
Oceanography and Oceanographic Engineering
1978-present Visiting Scientist, Biology Department
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
1974-76 Post-Doctoral Researcher, Biological Oceanography
Scripps Institution of Oceanography


Professional Societies:

American Society of Microbiology
American Geophysical Union
American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (Member-at-Large 1983-1986)
Phycological Society of America (Associate Editor, J. Phycol. 1983-1987)
The Oceanography Society (Charter Council Member 1989-1991)
Ecological Society of America
American Association for the Advancement of Science
Sigma XI

Honors and Awards:

2013 Ramon Margalef Prize in Ecology, Government of Catalonia, Spain
2013 Elected Fellow, Massachusetts Academy of Science
2013 Resident Scholar, Bellagio Conference and Study Center, Italy
2013 2011 National Medal of Science, the White House
2013 Elected Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science
2012 Elected Fellow, Ecological Society of America
2012 Ruth Patrick Award, American Society of Limnology and Oceanography
2011 Darbaker Prize: Botanical Society of America
2010 Agassiz Medal: National Academy of Sciences
2010 Petersen Award: IFM-GEOMAR Kiel, Germany
2009 Jardetzky Lecture/Medal, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University
2005 Huntsman Award for Excellence in Marine Science
2004-2012 Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Investigator in Marine Science
2003 Elected to the National Academy of Sciences
2002-present Lee and Geraldine Martin Professor of Environmental Studies (Endowed Chair)
1995-2002 McAfee Professor of Engineering (Endowed Chair)
1998 Resident Scholar, Bellagio Conference and Study Center, Italy
1997-1998 Guggenheim Fellow
1996 Elected Fellow, American Geophysical Union
1993 Elected Fellow, American Academy of Microbiology
1993 Member, International Ecology Institute
1992 Elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
1991 Rosenstiel Award in Ocean Sciences
1980-1982 Doherty Professor of Ocean Utilization (Endowed Junior Faculty Chair)
1977-1978 Edgerton Assistant Professor (Endowed Junior Faculty Chair)


Selected Outside Service:

Board Member, World Wildlife Fund (2004-2008)
Board Member, Institute for Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY (2003-2012)
Board Member, Union of Concerned Scientists (1996-2002)


Selected MIT Service:

Associate Chair of the MIT Faculty (1987-1989)
MIT/Woods Hole Joint Program Strategic Planning Committee (2010-2011)
Enviromnental Task Force (2007-2011)
Faculty Policy Committee (1987-1990, 2001-2004)
Gender Equity Committee, School of Engineering (1999-2010)
President's Task Force on Student Life and Learning (1996-1998)
Committee on Senior Women Faculty in the School of Science (1994-2000)
Council on the Environment (1992-present)
MIT Press Editorial Board (1989-1996)
The MIT/WHOI Joint Committee on Biological Oceanography (periodically, 1979-present)

Oceanographic Cruises:

R/V ALPHA HELIX, Gulf of California, 1974.
R/V ELLEN B. SCRIPPS, Southern California Bight Survey, III, 1975.
R/V ELLEN B. SCRIPPS, Southern California Bight Survey IV, 1975.
R/V DAVID STAR JORDAN (National Marine Fisheries), 1976.
R/V COLUMBUS ISELIN, Sargasso Sea, 1977.
R/V G.W. PIERCE, Sargasso Sea, 1979.
R/V KNORR Caribbean, 1985.
R/V OCEANUS Caribbean, 1986.
R/V ATLANTIS II, Southern California Bight, 1986-87.
R/V OCEANUS Caribbean, 1989.
R/V ISELIN Saragasso Sea, 1993.
R/V ISELIN Equatorial Pacific, 1993.
R/V OCEANUS Sargasso Sea, 1996,1997 (Chief Scientist)

Current Teaching:

Undergraduate subjects: Fundamentals of Ecology; Introductory Biology
Graduate subjects: Topics in Microbial Oceanography.

Research Interests:

General Areas: Biological oceanography, Global ecology, Ecological genomics.
Current Interests: Ecology, evolution, and comparative genomics of marine cyanobacteria and the viruses that infect them; Iron and phytoplankton growth; Ocean fertility.



Both books have received the AAAS/Subaru SB&F Prize for Excellence in Science Books

2012 Bang, M. and P. Chisholm. Ocean Sunlight: How tiny plants feed the seas. Blue Sky Press, Scholastic 42 pp. (a children's book about ocean phytoplankton and food webs)

2009 Bang, M and P. Chisholm. Living Sunlight: How plants bring the Earth to life. Blue Sky Press, Scholastic 43pp. (a children's book about photosynthesis)


Commentaries and White Papers

2009 Strong. A. S. Chisholm, C. Miller, and J. Cullen. Ocean Fertilization: Time to move on. Nature: 361:347-348.

2009 Strong, A.L., J. J. Cullen, and S.W. Chisholm. Ocean fertilization: Science, policy and commerce. Oceanography Magazine 22 (3):236- 261.

2002 Chisholm, S.W., P.G. Falkowski, and J.J. Cullen. Response to Johnson and Karl. Science 296:467-468

2002 Lam P, and S.W. Chisholm SW. Iron Fertilization of the Oceans: Reconciling Commercial Claims with Published Models. White Paper.

2001 Adihya, J. and S. W. Chisholm. Is ocean fertilization worth pursuing as a carbon sequestration option? White Paper, MIT Center for Environmental Initiatives.

2001 Chisholm, S.W., P.G. Falkowski, and J.J. Cullen. Dis-Crediting Ocean Fertilization. Science 294:309-310.

2000 Chisholm, S.W. "Stirring Times in the Southern Ocean" Nature (News and Views):407:685-687.



2013 Biller, SJ, F Schubotz, SE Roggensack, AW Thompson, RE Summons, and SW Chisholm. Bacterial vesicles in marine ecosystems. Science in press.

2013 Becker, JW PM Berube, CL Follett, JB Waterbury, SW Chisholm, EF DeLong, DJ Repeta. Phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter composition reflects producer phylogeny. Frontiers in Microbiological Chemistry. Submitted

2013 Kelly, L. H. Ding, K.H. Huang, M.S. Osburne, S.W. Chisholm. Genetic diversity in cultured and wild marine cyanomyoviruses reveals phosphorus stress as a strong selective agent. The ISME Journal Sept 7(9):1827-41.

2013 Labrie S.J., K. Frois-Moniz, M.S. Osburne, L. Kelly, S.E. Roggensack, M.B. Sullivan, G. Gearin, Q. Zeng, M. Fitzgerald, M.R. Henn and S.W. Chisholm. Genomes of marine cyanopodoviruses reveal multiple origins of diversity. Env. Microbiol. DOI: 10.1111/1462-2920.12053

2012 Malmstrom, R., S. Rodrigue, K.H. Huang, L. Kelly, S. Kern, A. Thompson, S. Roggensack, M. Henn, and S. W. Chisholm. Ecology of Uncultured Prochlorococcus Clades Revealed Through Single-Cell Genomics and Biogeographic Analysis. ISME Journal 7, 184-198; doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.89 2012

2012 Waldbauer, J. S. Rodrigue, M.L. Coleman, and S. W. Chisholm. Transcriptome and proteome dynamics of a light-dark synchronized bacterial cell cycle. PLoSONE Vol. 7 Issue 8. e43432 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043432

2012 Chisholm, S.W. Unveiling Prochlorococcus: The Life and times of the ocean's smallest photosynthetic cell. In: Microbes and Evolution: The World That Darwin Never Saw. In: R. Kolter and S. Maloy [eds]. ASM Press. p. 165. [Also published in 2011 in Microbe 6(6): 280-283 (cover story)]

2012 Martinez, C., M.S. Osburne, A. K. Sharma, E.F. DeLong and S.W. Chisholm. Phosphite utilization by the marine picocyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MIT9301. Env. Microbiology 14(6): 1363-1377doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02612.x

2012 Zeng, Q. and S.W. Chisholm. Marine viruses exploit their host's two-component regulatory system in response to resource limitation. Current Biology 22:124-128 doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.11.055

2011 Kelly, L., K.H. Huang, H. Ding, and S. W. Chisholm. ProPortal: A resource for integrated systems biology of Prochlorococcus and its phage. Nucleic Acids Res. 201140(D1):D632-D640 doi:10.1093/nar/gkr1022

2011 Osburne, M. S. B.M. Holmbeck, A. Coe, and S. W. Chisholm. The spontaneous mutation frequency in the marine cyanobacterium is commensurate with that of other bacteria. Environ. Micro. Reports. 3(6), 744-749. doi: 10.1111/j.1758-2229.2011.00293.x.

2011 Thompson, L. W. Q. Zeng, L. Kelly, K.H. Huang, S. U. Singer, J. Stubbe, and S. W. Chisholm. Phage auxiliary metabolic genes and the redirection of cyanobacterial host carbon metabolism. P.N.A.S., September 27, 2011, vol. 108, no. 39, E757-E764 doi: 10.1073/pnas.1102164108

2011 Thompson, A.W. K. Huang, M. A. Saito, S.W. Chisholm. Transcriptome response of high- and low-light adapted Prochlorococcus strains to changing iron availability. ISME Journal 5(10):1580-1594 DOI: 10.1038/ISMEJ.2011.49

2011 Sher, D. J. W. Thompson, N. Kashtan, L. Croal, and S. W. Chisholm. Response of Prochlorococcus ecotypes to co-culture with diverse marine bacteria. ISME Journal Feb 2011 5(7):1125-1132. doi:10.1038/ISMEJ.2011.1

2010 Sullivan, M.B., K.H. Huang, J.C. Ignacio-Espinoza, A. Berlin, L. Kelly, P.R. Weigele, A.S. DeFrancesco, S.E. Kern, L.R. Thompson, S. Young, C. Yandava, R. Fu1, B. Krastins, M. Chase, D. Sarracino, M.S. Osburne, M.R. Henn, S.W. Chisholm. Genomic analysis of oceanic cyanobacterial myoviruses compared to T4-like myoviruses from diverse hosts and environments. Envir. Microbiol. 12(11):3035-3056 doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2010.02280.x

2010 Coleman, M. L. and S. W. Chisholm. Ecosystem-specific selection pressures revealed by comparative population genomics. PNAS 107 (43): 18634-18639

2010 Malmstrom, R. A. Coe, G.C. Kettler, S.C. Martiny, J. Frias-Lopez, E. Zinser, and S. W. Chisholm. Temporal dynamics of Prochlorococcus ecotypes in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. ISME Journal 4:1252-1264

2010 McCarren, J., J.W. Becker, D.J. Repeta, Y. Shia, C.R. Young, R.R. Malmstrom, S.W. Chisholm, and E. F. DeLong. Microbial community transcriptomes reveal microbes and metabolic pathways associated with dissolved organic matter turnover in the sea. PNAS 107: 16420-16427

2010 Rodrigue, S. A. C. Materna, S. C. Timberlake, M. C. Blacburn, R.R. Malmstrom, E. J. Alm, and S. W. Chisholm. Unlocking Short Read Sequencing for Metagenomics. PLoSONE 5(7) e11840

2010 Osburne, M.S. ,B. M. Holmbeck, J. Frias-Lopez, R.Steen, K. Huang, L. Kelly, A. Coe, K. Waraska, A. Gagne, S. W. Chisholm. UV hyper-resistance in Prochlorococcus MED4 results from a single base pair deletion just upstream of an operon encoding nudix hydrolase and photolyase. Environmental Microbiol. 12:1978-1988

2010 Li, B. D. Sher, L. Kelly, K. Huang, I. Joewono, D. Rusch, S.W. Chisholm and W. A. van der Donk. Catalytic promiscuity in the biosynthesis of cyclic peptide secondary metabolites in planktonic marine cyanobacteria. PNAS. 107: 10430-10435

2010 Steglich, C.M. Futschik, D. Lindell, T. Rector, R. Steen, and S. W. Chisholm. Short RNA half-lives in the slow-growing marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus. Genome Biology 11:R54

2010 Henn, M. R. Matthew B. Sullivan, Nicole Stange-Thomann, Marcia S. Osburne, Aaron M. Berlin, Libusha Kelly, Chandri Yandava, Chinnappa Kodira, Qiandong Zeng, Michael Weiand, T. Sparrow, Sakina Saif, Georgia Giannoukos, Sarah K. Young, Chad Nusbaum, Bruce W. Birren, Sallie W. Chisholm. Analysis of high-throughput sequencing and annotation strategies for phage genomes. PLoS ONE 5(2) e908

2010 Bragg. J. S. Dutkiewicz, O. Jahn, M. J. Follws, and S. W. Chisholm. Modeling selective pressures on phytoplankton in the global ocean. PLoS ONE, Volume 5, Issue 3, e9569i

2010 Liu, X., Q. Zhang, K. Murata, M.L. Baker, M.B. Sullivan, C. Fu, M.F. Schmid, M. S. Osburne, S. W. Chisholm & W. Chiu. Structural changes in a marine podovirus associated with release of its genome into Prochlorococcus. Nature Structure and Mol Biol 17:830-U76.

2009 Sullivan, M.B. B. Krastins, J.L Hughes, L. Kelly, M. Chase, D. Sarracino, and S. W. Chisholm. The genome and structural proteome of an ocean cyanobacterial siphovirus: A new window into the cyanobacterial 'mobilome'. Environ. Microbiol. 11(11), 2935-2951

2009 Rodrigue, S., R. R. Malmstrom, A.M. Berlin, B.W. Birren, M.R. Henn, and S.W. Chisholm. Whole genome amplification and de novo assembly of single bacterial cells. PLoS ONE 4(9): e6864. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006864

2009 Klein, M.G., P. Zward, S.C. Bagby, F. Cai, S.W. Chisholm, S. Heinhorst, G.C. Cannon, and C. A Kerfeld. Identification and structural analysis of a novel carboxysome shell protein with implications for metabolite transport.. J. Mol. Biol. 392:319-333.

2009 Zinser, ER, D. Lindell, ZI Johnson, ME Futschik, C. Steglich, ML Coleman, MA Wright, T Rector, R Steen, N McNulty, LR Thompson, and SW Chisholm. Choreography of the transcriptome, photophysiology, and cell cycle of a minimal photoautotroph, Prochlorococcus. PLoS ONE April 2009, Volume 4, Issue 4, e5135

2009 Martiny, A.C., A.P.K. Tai, D. Veneziano, F. Primeau, and S. W. Chisholm. Taxonomic resolution, ecotypes, and the biogeography of Prochlorococcus. Env Microbiol. 11:823-832

2008 Frias-Lopez, J. Thompson, A. J. Waldbauer and S.W. Chisholm. Use of stable isotope labeled cells to identify active grazers of picocyanobacteria in ocean surface waters. Env. Microbiol. 11: 512-525

2008 Bragg, J. G. and S.W. Chisholm. Modeling the fitness consequences of a cyanophage-encoded photosynthesis gene. PLoS ONE, Volume 3, Issue 10, e3550

2008 Sullivan, M.B., M. L. Coleman, V. Auinlivan, J.E. Roesnkrantz, A.S. DeFrancesco, G. Tan, Ross Fu, Jessica A. Lee, John B. Waterbury, Joseph P. Bielawski & Sallie W. Chisholm. Portal protein diversity and phage ecology. Env. Microbiol. 10(10), 2810-2823

2008 Steglich, C., M. E. Futschik, D. Lindell, B. Voss, S.W. Chisholm and W. R. Hess . The challenge of regulation in a minimal photoautotroph: Non-coding RNAs in Prochlorococcus. PLoS Genetics, August 2008, Volume 4, Issue 8, e1000173

2008 Dammeyer, T., S.C. Bagby, M.B. Sullivan, S.W. Chisholm and N. Frankenberg-Dinkel. Efficient phage-mediated pigment biosynthesis in oceanic cyanobacteria. Current Biology 18:442-448

2008 Frias-Lopez, J. Y. Shi, G.W. Tyson, M. L. Coleman, S.C. Schuster, S.W. Chisholm and E. F. DeLong. Microbial community gene expression in ocean surface waters. P.N.A.S. 105:3805-3810

2007 Kettler, G. A.C. Martiny, K. Huang, J. Zucker, M.L. Coleman, S. Rodrigue, F. Chen, A. Lapidus, S. Ferriera, J. Johnson, C. Steglich, G. Church,  P. Richardson, S.W. Chisholm. Patterns and Implications of Gene Gain and Loss in the Evolution of Prochlorococcus. PLoS Genetics, December 2007, Volume 3, Issue 12, e231:pp. 2515-2528

2007 Moore, L.R., A. Coe, E.R. Zinser, M.A. Saito, M.B. Sullivan, D. Lindell, K. Frois-Moniz, J. Waterbury, and S. W. Chisholm. Culturing the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods  5: 353-362

2007 Coleman, M.L. and S.W. Chisholm. Code and Context: Prochlorococcus as a model for cross-scale biology. Trends in Microbiology 15:398-407

2007 Lindell, D. J.D. Jaffe, M.l. Coleman, I.M. Axmann, T. Rector, G. Kettler, M.B. Sullivan, R. Steen, W.R. Hess, G.M. Church, and S. W. Chisholm. Genome-wide expression dynamics of a marine virus and host reveal features of coevolution. Nature  449: 83-86

2007 Zinser, E. R. Z. I. Johnson, A. Coe, E. Karaca, D. Veneziano, And S. W. Chisholm. Influence of light and temperature on Prochlorococcus ecotype distributions in the Atlantic Ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 52 (5): 2205-2220.

2007 Follows, M., S. Dutkiewicz, S. Grant, S.W. Chisholm. Emergent biogeography of  microbial communities in a model ocean. Science 315:1843-1846

2006 Steglich, C. Futschik, M., Rector, T. and S.W. Chisholm. Genome-wide analysis of light sensing in Prochlorococcus. J. Bacteriol. 188: 7796-7806

2006 Tolonen, A.C. Aach, J. Lindell, D., Johnson, Z.I., Rector, T. Steen, R., Church, G. M. and S.W. Chisholm. Global gene expression of Prochlorococcus ecotypes in response to changes in nitrogen availability. Molecular
Systems Biology,
Volume 2, Article 53, doi:10.1038/msb4100087

2006 Sullivan, M.B., D. Lindell, J.A. Lee, L. R. Thompson, J. P. Bielawski, and S.W. Chisholm. Prevalence and evolution of core photosystem II genes in marine cyanobacterial viruses and their hosts. PLoS Biology 4 (8) 1345-1357

2006 Martiny, A.C., Coleman, M.L and S.W. Chisholm. Phosphate acquisition genes in Prochlorococcus ecotypes: Evidence for genome-wide adaptation. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 103 (33): 12552-12557

2006 Coleman, M.L., M.B. Sullivan, C. Steglich, E.F. DeLong and S.W. Chisholm. Genomic Islands and the ecology and evolution of Prochlorococcus. Science 311:1768-1770

2006 Johnson Z, Zinser ER, Coe A, McNulty NP, Woodward EMS, Chisholm SW. Niche partitioning among Prochlorococcus ecotypes along ocean-scale environmental gradients. Science 311:1737-1740

2006 Ahlgren, N.A., Rocap, G. And S.W. Chisholm. Measurement of Prochlorococcus ecotypes using real-time PCR reveals different abundance of genotypes with similar light physiologies. Env. Microbiol. 8(3): 441-454

2006 DeLong, E.F., C.M. Preston, T. Mincer, V. Rich, S. Hallam, N. Frigaard, A. Martinez, M. Sullivan, R. Edwards, B.R. Brito, S. W. Chisholm, and D. M. Karl. Comunity genomics among stratified microbial assemblages in the ocean's interior. Science 311:496-503

2006 Zinser, E.R., A. Coe, Z. Johnson, A.C. Martiny, N. Fuller, D.J. Scanlan, and S.W. Chisholm. Prochlorococcus ecotype abundances in the North Atlantic Ocean as revealed by an improved quantitative PCR method. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:723-732

2006 Zhang, K. A.C. Martiny, N.B. Reppas, K.W. Barry, J. Malek, S.W. Chisholm and G.M. Church. Sequencing genomes from single cells via polymerase clones. Nature Biotechnology 24: 680-686

2005 Bertilsson, S., O. Berglund, M.J. Pullin, and S.W. Chisholm. Release of Dissolved Organic Matter by Prochlorococcus. Vie et Milieu-(Life & Environment) 55 (3-4):225-231

2005 Lindell, D, J. D. Jaffe, Z. I. Johnson, G. M. Church, S. W. Chisholm. Photosynthesis genes in marine viruses yield proteins during host infection. Nature 438:86-89

2005 Sullivan, M.B., Coleman, M. Weigele, P. and Sallie W. Chisholm. Three Prochlorococcus cyanophage genomes:   Signature features and ecological interpretations. PLoS Biology 3(5) e144:0001-0017

2004 Johnson, Z.I. and S.W. Chisholm. Properties of overlapping genes are conserved among microbial genomes. Genome Research 14:2268-2272

2004 Lindell, D.  M. B. Sullivan, Z. I. Johnson, A. C. Tolonen, F.  Rohwer, and  S. W. Chisholm. Transfer of photosynthetic genes to and from Prochlorococcus viruses. P.N.A.S. 101: 11013-11018

2003 Rocap G, Larimer F, Lamerdin J, Malfatti S, Chain P, Ahlgren N, Arellano A, Coleman M, Hauser L, Hess W, Johnson Z, Land M, Lindell D, Post A, Regala W, Shah M, Shaw S, Steglich C, Sullivan M, Ting C, Tolonen A, Webb E, Zinser E, Chisholm S. Genome divergence in two Prochlorococcus ecotypes reflects oceanic niche differentiation. Nature 424:1042-1047

2003 Sullivan, M.B., J. Waterbury, and S.W. Chisholm. Cyanophage infecting the oceanic cyanobacterium, Prochlorococcus. Nature 424: 1047-1051

2003 Bertilsson, S., O. Berglund, D. M. Karl, and S.W. Chisholm. Elemental composition of marine Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus: Implications for the ecological stoichiometry of the sea.. Limnol. Oceanogr. 48: 1721-1731

2003 Shaw, S.L., S.W. Chisholm, and R.G. Prinn. Isoprene Production by Prochlorococcus, a Marine Cyanobacterium, and Other Phytoplankton. Marine Chemistry 80: 227-245

2002 Saito, M. A., J. W. Moffett, S. W. Chisholm, and J. Waterbury. Cobalt Limitation and Uptake in Prochlorococcus. Limnol. Oceanogr. 47(6)1629-1636

2002 Rinaldo, A. A. Martin, K.Cavender-Bares, and S.W. Chisholm. Cross-Scale Ecological Dynamics and Microbial Size Spectra in Marine Ecosystems. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 269:2051-2059

2002 Moore, L R., A.F. Post, G. Rocap, and S.W. Chisholm. Utilization of different nitrogen sources by the marine cyanobacteria, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Limnol Oceanogr. 47(4):989-996

2002 Mann, E.L., N. Ahlgren, J. W. Moffett, and S. W. Chisholm. Copper Toxicity and Cyanobacteria Ecology in the Sargasso Sea. Limnol. Oceanogr. 47: 976-988

2002 Ting, C.S., G.Rocap, J. King, and S.W. Chisholm. Cyanobacterial photosynthesis in the oceans: Origins and significance of divergent light-harvesting strategies. Trends in Microbiol 10: 134-142

2002 Rocap, G. D. L. Distel, J. B. Waterbury and S. W. Chisholm. Resolution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes using 16S-23S rDNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 68:1180-1191

2001 Hess, W.R., G. Rocap, C. Ting, and S.W. Chisholm. The photosynthetic apparatus of Prochlorococcus: Insights through comparative genomics. Photosynthesis Research 70:53-71

2001 Ting CS, Rocap G, King J, Chisholm SW. Phycobiliprotein genes of the Marine Photosynthetic Prokaryote Prochlorococcus: Evidence for Rapid Evolution of Genetic Heterogeneity. Microbiology 2001, 147: 3171-3182

2001 Cavender-Bares, K.K., A. Rinaldo, and S.W. Chisholm. Microbial size spectra from natural and artificial nutrient regimes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 46:778-789

2001 Cavender-Bares, K. K., D.M. Karl, and S. W. Chisholm. Nutrient gradients in the western North Atlantic Ocean: Relationship to microbial community structure and comparison to patterns in the Pacific Ocean. Deep Sea Res. Part I 48: 2373-2395

2001 Dusenberry, J.A., R.J. Olson, and S.W. Chisholm. Photoacclimation kinetics of single-cell fluorescence in laboratory and field populations of Prochlorococcus. Deep Sea Res. Part I, 48(2001) 1443-1458

2001 DuRand, M.D., R.J. Olson, and S.W. Chisholm. Phytoplankton population dynamics at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Station in the Sargasso Sea. Deep-Sea Research II, 48(8-9), 1983-2003. 

2000 Mann, E. and S.W. Chisholm. Iron limits the cell division rate of Prochlorococcus in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific. Limnol. Oceanogr. 45:1067-1076

2000 Dusenberry, J.A., R.J. Olson, and S.W. Chisholm. Field  observations of oceanic mixed layer dynamics and picophytoplankton photoacclimation. J. Mar. Sys. 24:221-232

2000 Worden, A.Z. , S.W. Chisholm, and B.J. Binder. In situ hybridization of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus (marine cyanobacteria) spp. with rRNA-targeted peptide nucleic acid probes. Appl. Env. Microbiol 66(1): 284-289

1999 Rocap, G., L.R. Moore, and S.W. Chisholm. Molecular phylogeny of Prochlorococcus ecotypes. In: Marine Cyanobacteria and Related Organisms, L. Charpy and T. Larkam (eds). Bulletin de l'Institute Oceanographique, Monaco, special issue N 19.  pp. 107-116

1999 Gin, K.Y.H., S.W. Chisholm, and R.J. Olson. Seasonal and depth variation in microbial size spectra at the Bermuda Atlantic time series station. Deep Sea. Res. I 46:1221-1245

1999 Moore, L. R. and S. W. Chisholm. Photophysiology of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus: Ecotypic differences among cultured isolates. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44(3)628-638

1999 Ting C., Rocap G., King J., Chisholm S.W. Characterization of Phycoerythrin Genes in the Chlorophyll a2/b2-Containing Prokaryote, Prochlorococcus sp. MIT9303. In: (G. Garab, Ed.) Photosynthesis: Mechanisms and Effects, Vol. 1, Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, pp. 225-228

1999 Cavender-Bares, K., Mann, E., Chisholm, S., Ondrusek, M., and Bidigare, R. Differential response of equatorial Pacific phytoplankton to iron fertilization. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44:237-246

1999 Dusenberry, J.A., R.J. Olson, and S.W. Chisholm. Frequency distributions of phytoplankton single-cell fluorescence and vertical mixing in the surface ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44:431-435

1998 Urbach, E. and S.W. Chisholm. Genetic diversity in Prochlorococcus populations flow-cytometrically sorted from the Sargasso Sea and Gulf Stream. Limnol. Oceanogr. 43:1615-1630

1998 Cavender-Bares, K. S. Frankel, and S. W. Chisholm. A dual-sheath flow cytometer for shipboard analyses of phytoplankton communities from the oligotrophic oceans. Limnol. Oceanogr. 43:1383-1388

1998 Moore, L., Rocap, G., and Chisholm, S. Physiology and molecular phylogeny of coexisting Prochlorococcus ecotypes. Nature 393: 464-467

1998 Urbach, E., Scanlan, D.J., Distel, D.L., Waterbury, J.B. and Chisholm, S.W. Rapid diversification of marine picophytoplankton with dissimilar light-harvesting structures inferred from sequences of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria). J. Mol. Evol. 46:188-201

1996 Binder, B.J., S.W. Chisholm, R.J. Olson, S.L. Frankel, and A.Z. Worden. Dynamics of Pico-phytoplankton, Ultra-Phytoplankton, and Bacteria in the Central Equatorial Pacific. Deep-Sea Res. II 43:907-931

1996 Zettler, E.R., R.J. Olson, B.J. Binder, S. W. Chisholm, S.E. Fitzwater & R. M. Gordon. Iron-enrichment bottle experiments in the equatorial Pacific: Responses of individual phytoplankton cells. Deep Sea Res. II, 43(4-6):1017-1029

1995 Carpenter, S.R., S.W. Chisholm, C.J. Krebs, D.W. Schindler & R.F. Wright. Ecosystem Experiments. Science 269:324-327

1995 Chisholm, S.W. The Iron Hypothesis: Basic research meets environmental policy. In R.Weller (ed.) Reviews of Geophysics, Supplement, USNational Report to Internat'l Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 1991-1994, July 1995, 1277-1286

1995 Vaulot, D, D. Marie, R.J. Olson & S.W. Chisholm. Growth of Prochlorococcus, a Photosynthetic Prokaryote, in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Science 268:1480-1482

1995 Moore, L.R, Goericke, R.E., Chisholm, S.W. Comparative Physiology of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus: influence of light and temperature on growth, pigments, fluorescence and absorptive properties. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 116:259-275

1995 Binder, B.J. & S.W. Chisholm. Cell Cycle Regulation in Marine Synechococcus. Appl. Env. Micro. 61(2):708-717

1994 Martin, J.A. & the IRONEX Group. Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature 371:123-148

1993 Bowen, J.D., K.D. Stolzenbach & S.W. Chisholm. Simulating bacterial clustering around phytoplankton cells in a turbulent ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 38(1) 36-51

1992 Chisholm, S.W. What Limits Phytoplankton Growth? Oceanus 35(3) 36-46

1992 Chisholm, S.W. Phytoplankton Size. In P.Falkowski & A.D. Woodhead (eds) Primary Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea. Plenum Press, N.Y. pp. 213-237

1992 Armbrust, E.V. and S.W. Chisholm. Patterns of cell size change in a marine centric diatom: Variability evolving from clonal isolates. J. Phycol. 28:146-156

1992 Urbach, E. D. Robertson, and S.W. Chisholm. Multiple evolutionary origins of prochlorophytes within the cyanobacterial radiation. Nature 355:267-270

1992 Chisholm, S.W., S.L. Frankel, R. Goericke, R.J. Olson, B.Palenik, J.B. Waterbury, L. West-Johnsrud, and E.R. Zettler. Prochlorococcus marinus nov. gen. nov. sp.:  an oxyphototrophic marine prokaryote containing divinyl chlorophyll a and b. Arch. Microbiol. 157:297-300

1991 Olson, R.J., E.R. Zettler, S.W. Chisholm and J.A. Dusenberry. Advances In Oceanography Through Flow Cytometry. In S. Demers & M. Lewis (eds.) Particle Analysis in Oceanography, Springer-Verlag Heidelberg Berlin, 351-399

1991 Chisholm, S.W. and F.M.M. Morel (eds). What Regulates Phytoplankton Production in Nutrient-Rich Areas of the Open Sea? Limnol. Oceanogr. Special Edition, 36(8)

1990 Brzezinski, M.A., R.J. Olson, and S.W. Chisholm. Silicon availability and cell cycle progression in marine diatoms. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 67:83-96

1990 Amann, R.I., B.J. Binder, R.J. Olson, S.W. Chisholm, R. Devereux, and D.A. Stahl. Combination of 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes with flow cytometry for analyzing mixed microbial populations. Appl. Env. Microbiol.  56(6):1919-1925

1990 Armbrust, E.V., R.J. Olson, and S.W. Chisholm. Role of light and the cell cycle on the induction of spermatogenesis in a centric diatom. J. Phycol. 26:470-478

1990 Binder, B.J. and S.W. Chisholm. Relationship between DNA cycle and growth rate in Synechococcus sp. strain PPC 6301. J. Bact. 172(5):2313-2319

1990 Frankel, S.L., B.J. Binder, H.M. Shapiro, and S.W. Chisholm. A high-sensitivity flow cytometer for studying picoplankton. Limnol. Oceanogr. 35(5):1164-1169

1990 Olson, R.J., S.W. Chisholm, E.R. Zettler, M.A. Altabet, and J.A. Dusenberry. Spatial and temporal distributions of prochlorophyte picoplankton in the North Atlantic Ocean. Deep Sea Research 37(6):1033-1051

1990 Olson, R.J., S.W. Chisholm, E.R. Zettler, and E.V. Armbrust. Pigments, size, and distribution of Synechococcus in the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Limnol. Oceanogr. 35(1):45-58

1989 Armbrust, E.V., J.D. Bowen, R.J. Olson, and S.W. Chisholm. Effect of light on the cell cycle of a marine Synechococcus strain. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 55(2):425-432

1989 Frankel, D.S., R.J. Olson, S.L. Frankel, and S.W. Chisholm. Use of a neural net computer system for analysis of flow cytometric data of phytoplankton populations. Cytometry. 10(5):540-550

1989 Gerath, M.A. and S.W. Chisholm. Change in photosynthetic capacity over the cell cycle in light/dark-synchronized Amphidinium carteri is due solely to the photocycle. Plant Physiol. 91:999-1005

1989 Sosik, H.M., S.W. Chisholm and R.J. Olson. Chlorophyll fluorescence from single cells: Interpretation of flow cytometric signals. Limnol. Oceanogr. (Special Ocean Optics Issue) 34:1749-1761

1988 Chisholm, S.W., R.J. Olson, E.R. Zettler, R. Goericke, J. Waterbury, and N. Welschmeyer. A novel free-living prochlorophyte abundant in the oceanic euphotic zone. Nature, 334(6180):340-343

1988 Chisholm, S.W., R.J. Olson, and C.M. Yentsch. Flow cytometry in oceanography: Status and prospects. EOS, Vol. 69, No.18

1988 Cowles, T.J., R.J. Olson, and S.W. Chisholm. Food selection by copepods: Discrimination on the basis of food quality. Mar. Biol., 100:41-49

1988 Olson, R.J., S.W. Chisholm, E.R. Zettler and E.V. Armbrust. Analysis of Synechococccus pigment types in the sea using single and dual beam flow cytometry. Deep-Sea Res., 35(3):425-440

1987 Vaulot, D., R.J. Olson, S. Merkel and  S.W. Chisholm. Cell cycle response to nutrient starvation in two phytoplankton species, Thalassiosira weissflogii and Hymenomonas carterae. Mar. Biol. 95:625-630

1987 Vaulot, D. and S.W. Chisholm. Flow cytometric analysis of spermatogenesis in the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii (Bacillariophyceae). J. Phycol. 23: 132-137

1987 Vaulot, D. and S.W. Chisholm. A simple model of growth of phytoplankton populations in light/dark cycles. J. Plank. Res., 9:345-366

1986 Chisholm, S.W., E.V. Armbrust and R.J. Olson. The individual cell in phytoplankton ecology: Cell cycles and applications of flow cytometry. In Platt, T. and W.K.W. Li [eds.] Photosynthetic Picoplankton (Can. Bull. Fish. Aq. Sci. #214), Dept. Fish. & Oceans, pp. 343-369

1986 Olson, R.J. and S.W. Chisholm. Effects of light and nitrogen limitation on the cell cycle of the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carteri. J. Plank. Res., 8(4):785-793

1986 Olson, R.J., C. Watras and S.W. Chisholm. Patterns of individual cell growth in marine centric diatoms. J. Gen. Microbio., 132:1197-1204

1986 Olson, R.J., D. Vaulot and S.W. Chisholm. Effects of environmental stresses on the cell cycle of two marine phytoplankton species. Plant Physiol., 80:918-925

1986 Vaulot, D., R.J. Olson and S.W. Chisholm. Light and dark control of the cell cycle in two marine phytoplankton species. Exp. Cell Res., 167:38-52

1985 Aelion, C.M. and S. W. Chisholm. Effect of temperature on growth and ingestion rates of Favella sp. J. Plank. Res., 7:821-830

1985 Olson, R.J., D. Vaulot and S.W. Chisholm. Marine phytoplankton distributions measured using shipboard flow cytometry. Deep-Sea Res., 10:1273-1280

1985 Watras, C.J., V.C. Garcon, R.J. Olson, S.W. Chisholm and D. M. Anderson. The effect of zooplankton grazing on estuarine blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gonyaulax tamarensis. J. Plank. Res., 7(6):891-908

1984 Chisholm, S.W., D. Vaulot and R.J. Olson. Cell cycle controls in phytoplankton: Comparative physiology and ecology. In: L. Edmunds [ed.], Cell Cycle Clocks, Marcel-Dekker, Ch. 2, pp. 365-394

1983 Olson, R.J. and S.W. Chisholm. Effects of photocycles and periodic ammonium supply on three marine phytoplankton species I. Cell division patterns. J. Phycol., 19:522-528

1983 Wheeler, P.A., R.J. Olson and S.W. Chisholm. Effects of photocycles and periodic ammonium supply on three marine phytoplankton species II. Ammonium uptake and assimilation. J. Phycol., 19:528-533

1983 Anderson, D.A., S.W. Chisholm and C.J. Watras. The importance of life cycle events in the population dynamics of Gonyaulax tamarensis, Mar. Biol., 76:179-189

1983 McKnight, D.M., S.W. Chisholm and D.R.F. Harleman. CuSO4 treatment of nuisance algal blooms in drinking water reservoirs. Env. Manage., 7:311-320

1983 Olson, R.J., S.L. Frankel, S.W. Chisholm and H.M. Shapiro. An inexpensive flow cytometer for the analysis of fluorescence signals in phytoplankton: Chlorophyll and DNA distributions. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 68:129-144

1982 McDuff, R.E. and S.W. Chisholm. The calculations of in situ growth rates of phytoplankton populations from fractions of cells undergoing mitosis: A clarification. Limnol. Oceanogr., 27:783-788

1982 Watras, C.J., S.W. Chisholm and D.M. Anderson. Regulation of growth in an estuarine clone of Gonyaulax tamarensis Lebour: Salinity dependent temperature response. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 62:25:-37

1981 Chisholm, S.W. Temporal patterns of cell division in unicellular algae. In: T. Platt [ed], Physiological Bases of Phytoplankton Ecology. (Bull. Can. J. Fish. Aquatic Sci)., pp. 150-181

1981 Chisholm, S.W. and L.E. Brand. Persistence of cell division phasing in marine phytoplankton in continuous light after entrainment to light:dark cycles. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 51:107-118

1981 Costello, J.C. and S. W. Chisholm. Influence of cell size on the growth rate of Thalassiosira weissflogii. J. Plank. Res., 3(3):414-419

1981 Rhee, G-Yull, I. J. Gotham and S.W. Chisholm. Use of cyclostat cultures to study phytoplankton ecology. In: P. Calcott [ed.], Continuous Cultures of Cells, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, Vol.II, pp. 159-186

1981 Rueter, J.G., S.W. Chisholm and F.M.M. Morel. Effects of copper toxicity on silicic acid uptake and growth in Thalassiosira pesudonana. J. Phycol., 17:270-278

1981 Shifrin, N.S. and S.W. Chisholm. Phytoplankton lipids: Interspecific differences and effects of nitrate, silicate and light/dark cycles. J. Phycol., 17:374-383

1980 Binder, B.J. and S.W. Chisholm. Changes in the soluble silicon pool size in the marine diatom Thalassiosira fluviatilis. Mar. Biol. Lett., 1:205-212

1980 Chisholm, S.W. and J.C. Costello. Influence of environmental factors and population composition on the timing of cell division in Thalassiosira fluviatilis (Bacillariophyceae) grown on light/dark cycles. J. Phycol., 16:375-383

1980 Chisholm, S.W., F.M.M. Morel and W.S. Slocum. The phasing and distribution of cell division in cycles in marine diatoms. In: P. Falkowski [ed.], Primary Productivity in the Sea. Brookhaven Symposium in Biology No.3, Plenum, N.Y., pp. 281-300

1980 Shifrin, N.S. and S.W. Chisholm. Phytoplankton lipids:  Environmental influences on production and possible commercial application. In: G. Shelef and C.J. Shoeder [ed.], Algae Biomass, Elsevier, Amsterdam

1979 Burmaster, D.E. and S.W. Chisholm. A comparison of two methods for measuring phosphate uptake by Monochrysis lutheri grown in continuous culture. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 39:187-202

1979 Stross, R.G., P.A. Nobbs and S.W. Chisholm. SUNDAY, a simulation model of an arctic Daphnia population. Oikos, 32:349-362

1978 Chisholm, S.W., F. Azam and R.W. Eppley. Silicic acid incorporation in marine diatoms on light:dark cycles: Use of an assay for phased cell division. Limnol. Oceanogr., 23(3):518-529

1978 Fuhrman, J.A., S.W. Chisholm and R.R.L. Guillard. Marine algae Platymonas sp. accumulates silicon without apparent requirement. Nature, 272:244-246

1977 Eppley, R.W., W.G. Harrison, S.W. Chisholm and E. Stewart. Particulate organic matter in surface waters off Southern California and its relationship to phytoplankton. J. Mar. Res., 35(4):671-696

1976 Azam, F. and S.W. Chisholm. Silicic acid uptake and incorporation by natural marine phytoplankton populations. Limnol. Oceanogr., 21(3):427-435

1976 Chisholm, S.W. and P.A. Nobbs. Simulation of algal growth and competition in a phosphate-limited cycolostat. In R.P. Canale [ed.], Mathematical Modeling of Biochemical Processes in Aquatic Ecosystems, Ann Arbor
Science, Ann Arbor, pp. 337-355

1976 Chisholm, S.W. and R.G. Stross. Phosphate uptake kinetics in Euglene Gracilus (Z) (Euglenophyceae) grown in light/dark cycles II. Phased PO4-Limited Cultures. J. Phycol., 12:217-222

1976 Chisholm, S.W. and R.G. Stross. Phosphate uptake kinetics in Euglena gracilis (Z) (Eugelenophyceae) grown on light/dark cycles I. Synchronized batch cultures. J. Phycol., 12:210-217

1976 Stross, R.G. and S.W. Chisholm. Density stabilization in arctic populations of Daphnia. Internat. Assoc. Theor. Appl. Limnol., 19:2879-2884

1976 Weiler, C.S. and S.W. Chisholm. Phased cell division in natural populations of marine dinoflagellates from shipboard cultures. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 25:239-247

1975 Chisholm, S.W., P.A. Nobbs and R.G. Stross. Light/dark-phased cell division in Euglena gracilis (Z) (Euglenophyceae) in PO4-limited continuous culture. J. Phycol., 11(4):367-373

1975 Chisholm, S.W. and R.G. Stross. Environmental and intrinsic control of filtering and feeding rates in arctic Daphnia. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., 32(2):219-226

1975 Howard, H.H. and S.W. Chisholm. Seasonal variation of manganese in a eutrophic lake. Amer. Mid. Nat. 93:188-197

1974 Chisholm, S.W. Studies on daily rhythms in phosphate uptake in Euglena, and their potential ecological significance. Ph.D. Thesis, State University of N.Y. at Albany

1973 Stross, R.G., S.W. Chisholm and T.A. Downing. Cause of daily rhythms in photosynthetic rates of phytoplankton. Biol. Bull., 145(1):200-209


Publications from work conducted in part in my laboratory:

2011 Roberts, S. Yu, S. Zeng, Q. Chan, L.C.L, Anderson, W. Reid, S. and R. Vogel. Tunable Pores for Measuring Concentrations of Synthetic and Biological Nanoparticle Dispersions. (in revision)

2011 John, S. C. Mendez, L. Deng. B. Poulos, A. Kauffman, S. Kern, J Brum, M. Polz, E.A. Boyle and M. B Sullivan. A simple and efficient method for concentration of ocean viruses by chemical flocculation. Env. Micro. Reports 3:195-202

2009 Martiny, A. S. Kathuria, and P.M. Berube. Widespread metabolic potential for nitrite and nitrate assimilation among Prochlorococcus ecotypes. PNAS 106: 10787-10792

2006 Tolonen, AC, G Liszt, and W. Hess. Genetic Manipulation of Prochlorococcus Strain MIT9313: Green Fluorescent Protein Expression from an RSF1010 Plasmid and Tn5 Transposition. Appl. Env. Micro. 72: 7607-7613

1998 Frankel, D.S., S. L. Frankel, B.J. Binder, and R. F. Vogt. Application of neural networks to flow cytometry data analysis and real-time cell classification. Cytometry 23:290-302