Metabolic evolution and the self-organization of ecosystems.

TitleMetabolic evolution and the self-organization of ecosystems.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBraakman, R, Follows, MJ, Chisholm, SW
JournalProc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Volume114
Issue15
PaginationE3091-E3100
Date Published2017 Apr 11
ISSN1091-6490
Abstract

Metabolism mediates the flow of matter and energy through the biosphere. We examined how metabolic evolution shapes ecosystems by reconstructing it in the globally abundant oceanic phytoplankterTo understand what drove observed evolutionary patterns, we interpreted them in the context of its population dynamics, growth rate, and light adaptation, and the size and macromolecular and elemental composition of cells. This multilevel view suggests that, over the course of evolution, there was a steady increase in' metabolic rate and excretion of organic carbon. We derived a mathematical framework that suggests these adaptations lower the minimal subsistence nutrient concentration of cells, which results in a drawdown of nutrients in oceanic surface waters. This, in turn, increases total ecosystem biomass and promotes the coevolution of all cells in the ecosystem. Additional reconstructions suggest thatand the dominant cooccurring heterotrophic bacterium SAR11 form a coevolved mutualism that maximizes their collective metabolic rate by recycling organic carbon through complementary excretion and uptake pathways. Moreover, the metabolic codependencies ofand SAR11 are highly similar to those of chloroplasts and mitochondria within plant cells. These observations lead us to propose a general theory relating metabolic evolution to the self-amplification and self-organization of the biosphere. We discuss the implications of this framework for the evolution of Earth's biogeochemical cycles and the rise of atmospheric oxygen.

DOI10.1073/pnas.1619573114
Alternate JournalProc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PubMed ID28348231
PubMed Central IDPMC5393222